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North Carolina Quakers, Anti-Slavery, and the Underground Railroad: 1910-1919

1910-1919

Date

General African American Timeline

Local Quaker & African American Timeline

1910

 

The Crisis journal, a publication of the NAACP, is first issued on November 1 and edited by W. E.B. Du Bois.
Some of its leaders were Jessie Redmon Fauset, Roy Wilkins, James Weldon Johnson, Ella Baker, Moorfield Storey, Walter White, Benjamin Hooks, Myrlie Evers-Williams, Julian Bond, and Kwesi Mfume.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Crisis

 
       

1910

 

First city ordinances are approved to designate segregated neighborhoods initially in Baltimore, and then followed in similar moves in Dallas, Texas; Greensboro, North Carolina; Louisville, Kentucky; Norfolk, Virginia; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Richmond, Virginia; Roanoke, Virginia; and St. Louis, Missouri. In 1917, the Louisville ordinance was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

 

1911

 

The National Urban League is formed through a merger of two earlier organizations and is initially named the National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. Its mission will be stated as "to enable African Americans to secure economic self-reliance, parity, power and civil rights."

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Urban_League

 
       

1912

 

Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, is elected President of the United States on November 5.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson

 
       

1913

 

The Jubilee Celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation is carried out throughout this fiftieth anniversary.

After African-American residents voice complaints because of their inability to attend Greensboro's opera house, they gain access to balcony seating they had requested.

1913

 

Harriet Tubman dies on March 10.

 

 

1913

 

President Woodrow Wilson promised "fair dealing" to African Americans but on April 11 implemented federal legislation that segregated work places, public rest rooms, and lunch rooms.

 

1914

 

The Universal Negro Improvement Association is a black nationalist fraternal organization established by Marcus Garvey "to promote the spirit of race pride" and unity among blacks worldwide.

Jim Crow ordinances are passed in Greensboro that prohibited African Americans from purchasing homes or establishing businesses in white dominated blocks.

   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Negro_Improvement_Association

 
       

1914

 

World War I begins in Europe. Many African Americans are registered and drafted to serve during the war.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I

 
       

1915

 

Booker T. Washington dies on November 14.

 

 

1917

 

On April 6, the United States enters World War I. Many African Americans are registered for the draft -- 370,000 African-Americans performed military service with over half serving in the French military zone.

 

1917

 

The East St. Louis Riot during May and July was the worst labor-related violence in U.S. 20th century history. Between 40 and 200 were killed, many were injured, and 6000 were left homeless. Prior to it, East St. Louis was receiving a huge influx of African Americans in the Great Migration out of the South to areas of the North where industry was booming. The labor needs were intensified by an absence of men during World War I.

An already volatile situation was made worst when labor strikes occurred and white labor unions tried to exclude black workers, while the industry owners were hiring African Americans as strikebreakers. 

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_St._Louis_Riot

 
       

1917

 

The Silent Parade (or Silent Protest) takes place on Fifth Avenue in New York. W. E. B. DuBois and the NAACP organize between 8,000-10,000 African Americans to march in silent protest for the East St. Louis Riot and the lack of progress for African American causes. President Woodrow Wilson had not kept his promises to African Americans. The march was ineffective in its effort to gain anti-lynching laws and federal equal rights legislation.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_Parade

 
       

1917

 

The Houston Riot of 1917 (or Camp Logan Riot) occurs as 156 African American soldiers of the 3rd Battalion of the 24th United States Infantry mutiny after an incident with a woman dragged from her house. Three court martial trials were held resulting in the execution by hanging of 18 or 19 soldiers and life sentences for 41 of them.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston_Race_riot

 
       

1917

 

The Supreme Court reverses the Louisville, Kentucky ordinance as unconstitutional to mandate segregated neighborhoods.

 

1918

 

A race riot occurs in Chester, Pennsylvania on July 25-28. The results included three blacks and two whites killed.

 

1918

 

A race riot occurs in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 26-29. The results included three blacks and one white killed.

 

1918

 

The Armistice on November 11 ends World War I. During the war, the Great Migration of African Americans to the North results in 1,035,000 more African American there than recorded in 1910. The South had lost 1,143,000 African Americans.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armistice_with_Germany

 
       

1919

 

The "Red Summer" takes place with more than 36 race riots occurring in the United States between the months of April and October. Tensions were high among returning World War I soldiers who were competing for jobs. African American soldiers had tasted more respectful treatment overseas and came back to the same disrespect and discrimination that they had left behind.

 
   

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Summer_of_1919