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Hege Library & Learning Technologies

IDS 428: Agricultural Revolutions

LibGuide for IDS 428 and associated classes

Style guide introduction


Citations are used to document sources by giving credit to another author's research. Citations give the writer credibility and create a record of sources for the writer and other researchers to build upon. Within this guide you will find examples of the most common citation styles and resources to use to help you properly cite your sources.

If you can't find what you are looking for, please refer to the style manuals for more in-depth examples, the style writing links found in each tab, or contact a librarian.

Important note!

This guide contains recommendations and typically used citation styles only. You should always consult with your professor to see what citation style they would like for you to use. Even if you think you know, always ask! Your professor always has the final word on citation styles and structure for coursework completed in their class!

When should you cite?

You should include a citation if you:

  • Use a direct quote
  • Summarize an outside source
  • Paraphrase an idea, quote, or passage from someone else

If you are unsure about whether you need to cite, go ahead and do it. It is always better to be safe than sorry when it comes to plagiarism.

Avoiding plagiarism

Guilford defines plagiarism broadly as presenting the interpretations, wording, images, or original conceptions of others as one's own without appropriate acknowledgement. Individual instructors have wide latitude to determine what constitutes "appropriate acknowledgement" within the context of their courses, either by specifically stating requirements or by acknowledging the standard practice within a given discipline. The charge of plagiarism applies to any and all academic work whether done inside or outside of the classroom and whether submitted as a rough draft or a final product. For more details, please consult the (Guilford College Academic Honor Code, which is published by the Office of the Academic Dean.

List of common style guides

There are a number of different style guides available for your professor to choose from and for you to use. What follows is a basic overview of the most common style guides. As always, remember to ask your professor which guide they prefer.

Modern Language Association (MLA) style guide

For MLA citations, please consult the MLA Handbook in our library catalogue as a starting point. We recommend the Seneca Libraries online guide and and the Purdue OWL online guide to learn how to format and write citations in MLA Style.

You can also access tutorial videos from Hoonuit. Log in with your Guilford credentials and search for the course MLA (8th Ed.) Research Paper Basics. Among these tutorial videos, you will find examples of how to properly cite some of the most common source types, such as books and journal articles.

American Psychological Association (APA) style guide

For APA citations, please consult the APA Handbook in our library catalogue. We recommend the Seneca Libraries online guide and the Purdue OWL online guide to learn how to format and write citations in APA style.

There are also a number of tutorial videos available from Hoonuit. There are a number of video available, including the full APA tutorial, an overview of the style, how to create a basic reference list, and how to format references. To access them, log in with your Guilford credentials.

Chicago and Turabian style guides

The starting point for learning about Chicago style citations is The Chicago Manual of Style website. You can also use a physical copy of the book, which you can find at the Research and Referral Desk. Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (now on its 9th edition) outlines a slightly simpler way of conforming to Chicago style conventions. It, too, is available at the Research and Referral Desk. You may also be able to find copies of both books online.

There are some important differences between the Chicago style and the Turabian style. The most important is the numbering system for notes. Chicago uses a number in parentheses followed by a period, a space, and then source information (e.g., 1. Chicago Manual of Style). Turabian, on the other hand, uses superscript in the text of the paper and in the footnotes. The superscript number in the footnote is followed by the source information. (e.g., ¹Turabian Style).

Like Chicago Style, Turabian utilizes different citation systems (Author-Date or Notes-Bibliography) and you should check your assignment instructions to determine which system your instructor wants you to utilize. For a paper written for the humanities you will most likely utilize Notes-Bibliography and for most other disciplines (particularly the sciences) you would typically use the Author-Date system.

There is a full Chicago Manual of Style tutorial available from Hoonuit. Remember to log in with your Guilford credentials. Some tutorials you may want to start with include an explanation of what the Chicago/Turabian style entails, how to format footnotes and endnotes, and how to format your bibliography.